The political economy of securitization: The case of Boko Haram, Nigeria

Michael Okwuchi Nwankpa

Abstract


Since the abduction in 2014 of 276 high school girls in a remote village, Chibok, in Borno state, Nigeria, the activities of the proscribed group Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati Wal-Jihad, popularly known as Boko Haram, has received elevated domestic and international attention, as has the Nigerian government’s strategy to deal with the group. Criticisms of the government’s ineffective handling of the situation have been made by a number of foreign governments, and several of them have offered military, intelligence, diplomatic, and law enforcement assistance to Nigeria. From a political economy perspective, this article presents a critical reading and analysis of the local and  international response to Boko Haram. It finds that an interest in the “securitization” of development prevails over a genuine peace and security agenda. [JEL codes: D74, O55]

Keywords


Boko Haram; political economy; securitized development; Nigeria; counter-terrorism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adibe, J. 2013. “What Do We Really Know About Boko Haram,” pp. 9-15 in I. Mantzikos, ed. Boko Haram: Anatomy of a Crisis. Bristol, UK: e-International Relations.

Amaliya, M. and M. Nwankpa. 2014. “Assessing Boko Haram: A Conversation.” Journal of Terrorism Research. Vol. 5, Iss. 1, pp.81-87.

[AI] Amnesty International. 2014. “Nigeria: More than 1,500 Killed in Armed Conflict in North-eastern Nigeria in Early 2014.” London: Amnesty International.

Collier, P. 2010. “Democracy, Development and Violence,” in N. Clemen Neumann, ed. Current Issues in Human Rights and International Relations: Papers from the Clemens Nathan Research Centre. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004179851.i-276.41

Collier, P. and A. Hoeffler. 2006. “Civil War,” pp. 711-739 in T. Sandler and K. Hartley, eds. Handbook of Defense Economics, vol. 2. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Dumas, L.L. 2011. The Peacekeeping Economy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Gartenstein-Ross, M. and T. Vassefi. 2012. “Current U.S. Policies toward Nigeria’s Boko Haram.” Gunpowder and Lead. 11 June 2012. http://gunpowderandlead.org/author/daveedandtara/.

Hadfield, A. 2007. “Janus Advances? An Analysis of EC Development Policy and the 2005 Amended Cotonou Partnership Agreement.” European Foreign Affairs Review. Vol. 12, No. 1, , pp. 39-66.

[HRW] Human Rights Watch. 2013. World Report 2013: Nigeria. http: www.hrw.org/world-report/2013/country-chapters/nigeria/ [accessed 5 May 2014].

[ICG] International Crisis Group. 2014. “Curbing Violence in Nigeria (II): The Boko Haram Insurgency.” Africa Report No. 2163 http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/africa/west-africa/nigeria/216-curbing-violence-in-nigeria-ii-the-boko-haram-insurgency.aspx.

Nwankpa, M. 2014. “The Politics of Amnesty in Nigeria: A Comparative Analysis of the Boko Haram and Niger Delta Insurgencies.” Journal of Terrorism Research. Vol. 5, Iss. 1, pp. 67-77.

Ousman, A. 2004. “The Potential of Islamist Terrorism in Sub-Saharan Africa.” International Journal of Politics. Culture, and Society. Vol. 18, Nos. 1-2, pp. 65-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:IJPS.0000048108.65370.fe

[ODI] Overseas Development Institute. 2011. “Is the UK Securitising its Development Aid?” http://www.odi.org/comment/5654-uk-securitising-its-development-aid.

Poling, C.C. 2013. “U.S Congress and Boko Haram,” pp. 73-84 in I. Mantzikos, ed. Boko Haram: Anatomy of a Crisis. Bristol, UK: e-International Relations.

Roosevelt, F.D. 1941. “Annual Message to Congress: The Four Freedoms Speech.” 6 January 1941. http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/pdfs/ffreadingcopy.pdf/

Sun, Y. and M. Rettig. 2014. “American and Chinese Trade with Africa: Rhetoric vs. Reality.” The Hill. 5 August 2014. http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/international/214270-american-and-chinese-trade-with-africa-rhetoric-vs-reality [accessed 18 December 2014].

Van Rooyen, J. and H. Solomon. 2007. “The Strategic Implications of the US and China’s Engagement Within Africa.” Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 1-27.

Watt, P. 2010. “DFID’s Transition from Aid Agency to Development Ministry: What Does Policy Coherence Imply?” in N. Clemen Neumann, ed. Current Issues in Human Rights and International Relations: Papers from the Clemens Nathan Research Centre. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004179851.i-276.43




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15355/epsj.10.1.32

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.