The Effect of Farmer-Pastoralist Violence on Income: New Survey Evidence from Nigeria’s Middle Belt States


  • Topher L. McDougal University of San Diego
  • Talia Hagerty Institute for Economics and Peace
  • Lisa Inks Mercy Corps
  • Claire-Lorentz Ugo-Ike Mercy Corps
  • Caitriona Dowd Mercy Corps
  • Stone Conroy Mercy Corps
  • Daniel Ogabiela Mercy Corps



Farmer-pastoralist violence, cost of conflict, survey, instrumental variables, negative binomial model


This study estimates the relationship between violent conflict and household income in four states of Nigeria’s Middle Belt region (Benue, Kaduna, Nasarawa, and Plateau) where farmers and pastoralists routinely clash over access to farmland, grazing areas, stock routes, and water points for animals and households. Although relatively low in intensity, this form of violence is widespread, persistent, and arguably increasing in its incidence. We obtained data on income and household-level violence exposure from an original household survey administered in September 2014. Employing a negative binomial instrumental variables model, we find an inverse relation between violence and household incomes. Incomes could be increased by between 64 to 210 percent of current levels if violence related to farmer-pastoralist conflict in the four study states were reduced to near-zero. Cumulatively, we find that forgone income represents 10.2 percent of the combined official state domestic product in the study area. This is high when compared to the costs of conflict measured in other studies, even as our study takes account only of microeconomic costs. After incorporating an estimate of the size of the informal economy, the microeconomic cost of farmer-pastoralist conflict to the total economy is approximately 2.9 percent. [JEL codes: C36, D74, J17]

Author Biographies

Topher L. McDougal, University of San Diego

Topher McDougal is Assistant Professor in Economic Development & Peacebuilding at the Kroc School of Peace Studies at the University of San Diego.

Talia Hagerty, Institute for Economics and Peace

Talia Hagerty is a Researcher at the Institute for Economics and Peace in Sydney, Australia.

Lisa Inks, Mercy Corps

Lisa Inks is Director of Conflict Management Programs at Mercy Corps Nigeria.

Daniel Ogabiela, Mercy Corps

Daniel Ogabiela is Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning Officer with Mercy Corps Nigeria.


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How to Cite

McDougal, T. L., Hagerty, T., Inks, L., Ugo-Ike, C.-L., Dowd, C., Conroy, S., & Ogabiela, D. (2015). The Effect of Farmer-Pastoralist Violence on Income: New Survey Evidence from Nigeria’s Middle Belt States. The Economics of Peace and Security Journal, 10(1).




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